Written By: Xomgromit formerly Jaded

Atomic Structure

Section 1

**T**o
understand the basics of electronics, we must go all the way back to the
atomic structure, and the table of elements. The atom consist of 3 parts,
the neutron, the proton, and finally the electron, Elements are formed
by different configurations of the three parts, the Neutron as you may
have guessed is neutral in charge, whereas the proton has a positive charge,
and the electron has a negative charge. A basic element may look like this
following diagram, however since atoms are to small for even the strongest
Microscopes to see, we have to rely on what previous scientist have stated.

- 1. The Atom consist of 3 Major parts, the Nucleus (Containing protons and nutrons)
- 2. Protons have a Positive charge
- 3. Electrons which exsist on the rings surrounding the Nucleus have a negative charge
- 4. Electrons on the outter most ring are called Valence electrons

- http://mwanal.lanl.gov/CST/imagemap/periodic/periodic.html

Voltage, Current, and Resistance

Section 2

This section will explain the difference between voltage, current, and resistance. As well as explain how there relationship to electronics is.

Voltage = V measured in volts (couldn't have
guessed that one eh?)

Voltage is defined as the Potential to get work done, and believe it or
not Voltage isn't the killer, proof to back this up will be evident by
the end of this section.

Current = A measured in Ampere's, Amps are the flow
of electricity, pushed by the voltage, current is what kills people, and
for all the math guru's out there heres how many coulombs it would take
to make one amp of current 6.25^{18} Roughly just take 6.25 times
itself 18 times and thats about how many coulombs it takes to make one
ampere of current. Neat isn't it :)

Resistance = R measured in ohms. defined as the resistance to the flow of current.

Combine
these 3 and you have the ability to figure out circuits, using Ohms law
E = I x R ;

I = E / R; R = E / I

Meet the basic circuit, the
series of short and long lines, is a battery symbol or can be used as a
DC voltage source, the slanted lines that reverse back and forth is a resistor,
now Figure 2-1 gives us one of the 3 parts of the equation for circuit
analysis it gives us Ohms, which is resistance. If we were to attach to
this a voltage you from the knowledge from this essay could figure out
the current going thru this circuit. by the way theres 3 different kinds
of circuits, and for now we will stick with the first series circuits.
(Just for the people who want to know the other two there Parallel, and
Series-Parallel) so lets attach a voltage of 5 V to this...now using I
= E / R, you could solve this equation. It would come out as .5 or 500
Milliamperes of current. Back to some math side points moving the period
3 spaces left makes it Milli which is 10^{-3 } Translated
to decimal places this would be 0.01 since we have made it this far I think
it's logical to give names and the do's and don't of moving the decimal
place, moving it left makes it a negative superscript number, below is
a list showing the number of decimal places moved, and the scientific name
for it

Milli -3 | Kilo 3 |

Micro -6 | Mega 6 |

Nano -9 | Giga 9 |

Pico -12 | Terra 12 |

As mentioned above amperes are what kill people, and if you have a Ohm-meter handy you can measure your personal resistance, by taking one probe between the fingers of your left hand, and the other probe between your fingers of your right hand, hold them lightly and then take your reading and apply a voltage, like lets say you had 1 Megaohm of resistance and you got hit by 5 volts, the current running thru your body would be 5 Micro-ohms, basicly you wouldn't feel a thing, by applying different voltages you can see how much your body can take max and how much it would take to kill you

Heres the chart

100 Milliamperes and below Not much doubt you'd even feel it |

200 to 400 Milliamperes Point of sensation kinda tingly |

500 to 600 Milliamperes Painful yet you can still let go |

700 to 800 Milliamperes Very Painful loss of muscle control can't let go, and heart fribulations |

900 mA (mA = Milliampere) to 1 Amp and above = Death |

Thanks
for taking the time to read this essay, In time there will be more of them
from me, until then hope the two I have made help :)

ID - Xomgromit